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Snazzy and Hyperthyroidism
The Diaz family brought their cat, Snazzy, to Longs Peak Animal Hospital for her yearly checkup recently, but noted when making the appointment that she has been acting strangely.
As the technician got a weight for Snazzy and took her temperature, she asked about Snazzy’s recent behavior.
“She just turned 13, but she has been meowing incessantly and racing around the house like a wild kitten all of last month,” said Mrs. Diaz.
Young Billy Diaz added, “She’s usually really sweet, but she hissed and swatted at me a few times this week too. It really scared me!”
Mrs. Diaz also noted that Snazzy’s usually-glossy calico coat has seemed a bit drier and duller for a while now, and that she hasn’t been grooming herself normally.
Mr. Diaz piped in as well: “I believe she may be eating more lately, too. I feel like I’ve been buying cat food more often.”
After listening to the technician’s summary and reviewing Snazzy’s medical history, Dr. Marsella came into the room to begin the exam.
Even though Mr. Diaz said her appetite had increased, Dr. Marsella noticed that Snazzy was looking a bit thin, and her medical records revealed some weight loss since last year’s check-up. He also noted Snazzy’s unkempt hair-coat.
Mrs. Diaz then remembered to mention that she has taken to changing the litterbox more frequently, as the urine clumps are building up faster than before. She wasn’t sure if this was important, but Dr. Marsella assured her that relaying any changes in behavior can be helpful.
Upon listening to Snazzy’s heart, Dr. Marsella noted a fast, pounding heartbeat as well as a heart murmur that hadn’t been noted previously in her medical record.
He also felt abnormal lumps on Snazzy’s throat—a “thyroid slip.”
Because of Snazzy’s behavior and physical exam findings, Dr. Marsella recommended bloodwork.
Snazzy’s bloodwork revealed high thyroid hormone levels, but the remainder of the bloodwork was not concerning.
Dr. Marsella told the Diaz family that the most likely culprit for Snazzy’s strange behavior, the abnormal physical exam findings, and the bloodwork changes was hyperthyroidism. He explained that hyperthyroidism is caused by a benign (non-cancerous) process, but that 1-2% of cats with the disease can have a type of thyroid cancer.
Dr. Marsella presented several treatment options that might help Snazzy:
“Some cats respond well to daily medical management with a pill or a cream. For others, a diet change to a prescription food can help the problem, but since you have other kitties in the house, that might be difficult.”
He also explained that a visit to a specialty hospital for a type of radiation therapy was also an option.
After considering their options, the Diaz family agreed that their first strategy would be to treat Snazzy using the pills since many cats will take them crushed and mixed in canned food. We filled the prescription through our in-house pharmacy and a Recheck Exam was scheduled for three weeks later.
The Recheck Exam:
After a few weeks of medication, the hyperactive and aggressive behaviors had subsided; Snazzy wasn’t crying for food all day, and her fur was starting to improve.
Snazzy’s bloodwork was repeated and her thyroid hormone was normal. In six months, Dr. Marsella will check the thyroid levels again to make sure the dosage of thyroid medicine is still correct.
Now that her hyperthyroidism is being appropriately managed, the Diaz household has returned to normal and Snazzy is able to relax and enjoy her favorite windowsill where she has a great view of the bird feeder.
We’ve all heard about the obesity epidemic in America. 36% of adults and 17% of children in the U.S. were considered clinically obese from 2011 to 2014. Around an additional 20% were considered overweight during that time. What we don’t often hear about is the obesity epidemic in our pets. According to the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention, in 2015, 54% of dogs and 58% of cats were considered overweight or obese, making obesity one of the more common, yet preventable, diseases we see in our pets.
But, why does obesity matter?
Diseases that have been associated with obesity in pets include but are not limited to osteoarthritis, Diabetes, high blood pressure, heart and respiratory disease, knee ligament injury, kidney disease, urinary bladder disease, cancer, and decreased life expectancy (up to 2.5 years). So, if decreasing unplanned visits to the veterinarian and unwanted prescription costs sounds good to you, getting that extra weight off of your pet may be your best opportunity.
So, how do I get rid of those unwanted pounds?
First, before starting any diet or exercise program, it is important to ensure your pet is healthy by making sure he/she is up to date on his/her annual physical.
More than any other disease, obesity is one that you, as an owner, have substantial control over. Diet is probably the easiest variable to control to start making immediate improvements in your pet’s body condition. See the table below, from the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention website (http://petobesityprevention.org), to check how many calories your pet should be eating per day and then make adjustments based on the type of food you feed and your pet’s individual activity level. Remember to include all food sources, including treats, rawhides, Greenie-type dental chews, as well as people-food, which can all be very high in calories. If your pet is already getting an apparently appropriate intake of calories but is still overweight or obese, a good rule-of-thumb is to decrease the total daily intake of food by 25%, starting first with people food and treats. Remember, however, that some diseases, such as hypothyroidism can affect your pet’s ability to lose weight, and you should also consult with your veterinarian if you have questions or your pet continues to be overweight despite these simple interventions.
|10 lbs.||180 to 200 calories*|
|10 lbs.||200 to 275 calories*|
|20 lbs.||325 to 400 calories*|
|50 lbs.||700 to 900 calories*|
Daily Caloric Needs for Active Humans
*Please note that the calorie counts provided are guidelines for average lightly active adult spayed or neutered dogs or cats (1 to 7 years old receiving less than 30 minutes of aerobic activity per day). The caloric needs of a particular pet may differ depending on such factors as lifestyle, genetics, activity level and medical conditions. Your pet will likely be fed fewer calories if you are attempting to reduce weight and improve fitness. Note that most indoor cats receive very little sustained aerobic activity and many dogs do not receive adequate daily physical activity. We recommend a structured, routine exercise and nutritional program for your pet.
Second to diet, and maybe just as important for the control of obesity, is a regular exercise program. 20-30 minutes of moderate activity per day is a reasonable goal. For a dog, this could include brisk walking or fetching a tennis ball. For a cat, a toy mouse on a string can provide a good source of mental and physical stimulation. In winter, when it is tough to get outside for exercise, consider treadmill training for your dog. When thinking of ways to get exercise for you or your pet, consider that any amount of activity is better than none. And what a great opportunity to bond with your pet and increase their quality of life, and maybe your own too!
Over the last few Colorado springs and summers, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has seen an increase in Tularemia, also known as “rabbit fever”. Tularemia is a bacterial infection (Francisella tularensis) which has the potential to infect dogs, cats and people.
There are two main sources of transmission, and both are associated with rabbits.
Clinical signs to watch for include: fever, depression, anorexia (lack of appetite), lymph node enlargement, and ulcers or wounds in the mouth. These symptoms are common with other diseases, but a specific test to diagnose Tularemia is offered by the State Health Department and can be submitted through Longs Peak Animal Hospital, PC.
Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for Tularemia and can be started while waiting for test results. Depending on the severity of the infection, hospitalization may be necessary. We recommend flea and tick preventative (topical or oral) to limit exposure.
There were 46 cases of Tularemia reported in 2015 for Boulder, Larimer, and Weld counties. If you notice an unexplained die-off of a rabbit population near your home, please contact the County Health department. Keep in mind that it is best to avoid contact with all rabbits.
Recently, Longs Peak Animal Hospital has seen several cases of dogs experiencing toxicity from a substance called xylitol, and its effects can be life-threatening. Xylitol is a common sugar substitute found in many different food (and non-food) items from sugar-free gum and candy, to artificial sweetener for baking, to nut butters and vitamins and supplements. While it does not appear to have adverse effects in humans, dogs can experience toxic effects, even at seemingly low doses. To date, cats do not appear to be affected in the same way as dogs.
Xylitol is one of several common “sugar alcohols”. In dogs, it causes a massive release of insulin from the pancreas, which leads to a precipitous drop in blood sugar. If blood sugar becomes too low, a condition called hypoglycemia will develop, and may lead to weakness, lethargy, seizures, and death. Xylitol can also cause damage to the dog’s liver, known as acute liver necrosis. While liver necrosis is thought to occur at higher levels of intoxication, the exact level at which this occurs and the mechanism itself is unknown.
There is no known antidote for xylitol toxicity; treatment centers on supportive care. Treatment for xylitol ingestion may include induction of vomiting for recent ingestions, as long as the patient is conscious, followed by hospitalization for close monitoring of blood glucose values, glucose supplementation, and IV fluid administration as needed. Some patients may experience hypoglycemia for up to 72 hours after ingestion. Additionally, blood tests are performed periodically for at least 72 hours to assess liver health, and special medications for liver protection may be indicated.
The key to successful treatment of xylitol ingestion is early and aggressive intervention. If you suspect your dog may have ingested even as little as 1 to 2 sticks of gum containing xylitol, do not hesitate to seek immediate treatment.
Do you have a senior citizen kitty? By definition, a senior feline is any cat over the age of seven. While cats routinely go on to live well into their mid to late teens (or even their early twenties!), older cats are at higher risk for developing many diseases which may have only subtle symptoms.
Vomiting: A common misconception is that frequent vomiting, or bringing up food and hairballs, is normal. In truth, chronic vomiting or hairballs can be a sign of underlying disease. Although your cat many be a fast eater, a fastidious groomer, or “just a puker,” vomiting is never normal. Even hairballs can indicate abnormal function of the stomach and intestines. If you have noticed that your cat is vomiting frequently, we recommend scheduling an appointment with your veterinarian to rule out possible causes including certain inflammatory bowel conditions, lymphoma, diabetes, or kidney disease.
Increased drinking and/or urination: It is also important to monitor your cat’s water intake and urination. For many feline diseases (like diabetes mellitus or kidney disease), your cat’s water and urine habits may change drastically. For example, diabetic cats have very high blood sugar which causes increase thirst and urination. Things to watch for include excessive drinking, larger urine clumps in the litter box, filling water bowls more frequently, or urinating outside of the litter box.
Arthritis: Arthritic cats may not have obvious pain or limp but you may notice that your senior feline friend is less playful, no longer jumps on high furniture, or chooses to lay in unusual spots lower to the ground. While arthritis is an irreversible condition, there are a number of supplements and medications that may help to reduce pain and increase their quality of life.
Dental disease: Dental disease can be easily diagnosed by your veterinarian on physical examination. At home, you may notice weight loss, decreased appetite, or bad breath. Advanced dental disease can cause serious health complications including severe pain, weight loss, tooth infections, and tooth loss. Did you know that dental disease can even affect the heart, liver, and kidneys? There are many good products that you can use to help prevent dental disease but the best thing for preexisting dental disease is a professional veterinary dentistry to remove dental tartar and to address any diseased teeth.
Hyperthyroidism: Hyperthyroidism is a very common condition in older cats. The most noticeable symptoms include weight loss, a dry/scruffy coat, and vomiting. These cats suffer from overproduction of thyroid hormone from the thyroid glands located in the neck. Unlike many other diseases, cats with hyperthyroidism often maintain a good appetite or may even be ravenous. Luckily, when hyperthyroidism is diagnosed early it can be easily treated.
If your cat hasn’t been to the veterinarian for their regular yearly check-up, or if you have noticed any of these symptoms, we recommend giving us a call to schedule an examination. Routine veterinary care is important for your cat’s well-being to ensure they live a long and healthy life!